Metallurgical Engineering Syllabi & Exam Descriptions | APEGA

Metallurgical Engineering Syllabi & Exam Descriptions

2010 Edition

Revised July 2011

Group A

Compulsory exams – Seven required

10-Met-A1 Metallurgical Thermodynamics

Phase relationships and phase rule. First, second and third laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy and heat balances, entropy, free energy, and chemical equilibrium. Solution chemistry and solution models, chemical potential, relationships between phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties. Thermochemical analyses of metallurgical and electrochemical processes. Computational thermodynamics.

10-Met-A2 Metallurgical Rate Phenomena (Suggested Prerequisite: A1)

Transport equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer. Thermodynamic and physical boundary conditions. Interphase mass transfer: gas-solid, gas-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-solid applied to metallurgical systems. Mathematical models. Radiation heat transfer: black and grey body, emissivity and view factors. Heat transfer in casting processes: mould properties, continuous casting. Reactor theory applied to metallurgical operations: mixed flow, plug flow, residence time.

10-Met-A3 Metal Extraction Processes

Principles of mineral processing: comminution, physical separation techniques, flotation, dewatering. Selection of extraction processes. Hydrometallurgy and electrometallurgy including leaching, solution purification, solvent extraction, metal winning and refining. Pyrometallurgical operations including roasting, smelting, converting and refining and refractory issues. Calculations based on flow sheets, heat and mass balances. Environmental impact of processing operations.

10-Met-A4 Structure of Materials

Structure of metals (description of crystal structures). Analytical methods to determine structure including metallography, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Introductory dislocation theory. Elements of grain boundaries. Vacancies. Phases and binary phase diagrams.

10-Met-A5 Mechanical Behaviour and Fracture of Materials (Suggested Prerequisite: A4)

Tensile response of materials. Elements of dislocation theory. Slip and twinning in crystalline solids. Strengthening mechanisms in metals. High temperature deformation response of crystalline solids. Fracture. Elements of fracture mechanics. Cyclic stress and strain fracture. Fatigue crack propagation.

10-Met-A6 Phase Transformation and Thermal Treatment of Metals and Alloys (Suggested Prerequisite: A4)

Annealing of Metals (Recovery, recrystallization, grain growth, secondary recrystallization, and heat treatments based on these phenomena.) Nucleation and growth processes and the solidification of metals. Solidification phenomena in metals. Nucleation and growth kinetics. Precipitation hardening.

10-Met-A7 Corrosion and Oxidation (Suggested Prerequisite: A1)

Basic corrosion theory. Electrochemical corrosion theory. Metallurgical cells. Environmental cells. Stress assisted corrosion. Materials selection. Protective coatings. Corrosion inhibitors. Cathodic and anodic protection. Oxidation.

Group B

Elective exams – Three required

10-Met-B1 Mineral Processing

Sources and nature of metallic and industrial minerals of importance. Comminution techniques, size classification. Hydrocyclones, gravity and magnetic separations. Flotation: surface chemistry, reagents, analysis. Tailings disposal, water pollution control, closed circuit operation. Plant design, process analysis and optimization.

10-Met-B2 Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy

Unit processes of hydrometallurgy: acid, alkaline and pressure leaching., Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. Pourbaix diagrams. Purification of leach liquors by ion exchange, solvent extraction and selective precipitation operations. Solid-liquid separation techniques. Principles of electrometallurgy. Recovery of metal values by cementation, electrowinning and refining from aqueous solutions. Electrolyte preparation, cell potential, effect of additives. Hydrogen precipitation methods. Application of processes for the recovery of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, gold and uranium.

10-Met-B3 Ironmaking and Steelmaking

Thermodynamics and kinetics of iron and steelmaking reactions. Direct reduction processes. Blast furnace operations. Chemical properties of fluxes, slags and refractories. Converter processes and electric furnace steelmaking. Treatment of hot metal, ladle metallurgy including desulfurization , deoxidation, inert gas and vacuum treatment. Continuous casting. Secondary refining processes including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR, and ESR. Analysis of new and emerging steelmaking technologies. Environmental control.

10-Met-B4 Non-Ferrous Extractive Metallurgy

The application of principles of thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport phenomena to the extraction and refining of non-ferrous metals using pyrometallurgical processes. Production of copper, nickel, lead, and zinc from sulphides. Converting and flash smelting operations. Production of aluminum and magnesium using fused salt electrolysis. Reduction cell operation. Production of refractory metals by chlorination and purification. Recent developments in non- ferrous pyrometallurgy. Environmental impact.

10-Met-B5 Metal Fabrication

Fundamentals of solidification: phase diagrams, cooling curves, cast structures, solidification shrinkage, molten metal characteristics. Casting methods including ingot casting, continuous casting, sand casting, die casting, investment casting, counter gravity, lost foam, mould casting, squeeze and semi-solid casting. Hot working: hot rolling, extrusion, and forging. Bending and sheet metal operations: roll bending and forming, shearing operations, stretch forming and drawing, hydroforming, and superplasticity. Powder metallurgy processes.

10-Met-B6 Physical Metallurgy of Iron and Steel

Iron-Carbon alloys (Fe-Fe3C alloys system and isothermal transformation of austenite to ferrite and cementite and martensite, annealing and normalizing, cold working and process annealing, tempering, austempering and martempering). Carbon steels including microalloyed steels. Alloy steels. Stainless steels. Cast irons. Tool steels. Surface hardening and modification.

10-Met-B7 Physical Metallurgy of Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys

Aluminum and its alloys. Copper and its alloys. Titanium and its alloys. Nickel and Cobalt alloys. Magnesium and Zinc alloys. refractory metals and alloys and structural intermetallics.

10-Met-B8 Ceramic Materials

Bonding in ceramics. Ceramic structures. Effect of chemical forces and structure on physical properties. Defects in ceramics. Diffusion and electrical conductivity. Phase equilibria. Sintering and grain growth. Mechanical properties: fast fracture, creep, slow crack growth and fatigue. Thermal stresses and thermal properties. Dielectric properties.

10-Met-B9 Structure and Properties of Polymers

Chain architecture: chain dimensions, Gaussian segment density distribution, polymer conformation. Molar mass determination: osmometry, light scattering, gel permeation, chromatography, capillary viscometry. Polymer phase equilibria: solvent quality, polymer blending. Polymer structure/transitions: melting and glass transition temperatures, free volume. Crystallization: crystal structure, fractional crystallinity. Mechanical properties: testing methods, compliance, viscoelasticity, dynamic testing, time-temperature superposition, mastercurve, rubber elasticity, crazing. Polymer flow properties: viscosity, rheology, shear thinning, analysis of flow fields. Polymer processing techniques.

10-Met-B10 Advanced Electronic Materials

Band theory: energy levels in solids, effective mass, Fermi-Dirac statistics. Semiconductors: doping, activation, diffusion, P-n junctions, and solar cells. Dielectrics and polarization: capacitance, dielectric materials, Lorentz field, dielectric breakdown, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity and pyroelectricity. Magnetism: field intensity, permeability, exchange interaction, saturation magnetization, magnetic domains and anisotropy, hysteresis loop. Superconductivity: Meissner effect, superconducting materials, critical field and current density, BCS theory. Metals: contact potential, Seebeck and thermocouple effect, thermoelectrics, electromigration.