# Geology Syllabi & Exam Descriptions

# 2014 Edition

APEGA uses Geoscientists Canada’s recommended qualifications for registration as a Professional Geoscientist. APEGA exams cover select subject areas that enable applicants to demonstrate their required knowledge for licensure.

## Courses With an APEGA Exam

### 2010-GFund-1a + 1b ≡ APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-1 Calculus

Limits, continuity; differentiation, derivatives of the elementary functions (including trigonometric and exponential functions and their inverses), related rates, the mean Value Theorem, curve sketching, extremum problems, the definite integral, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, techniques of integration, area, volume, arc length, moments and centres of mass, parametric and polar considerations, sequences, series, Taylor series functions of several variables, partial derivatives, and applications.

### 2010-GFund-2a + 2b ≡ APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-3 Physics

Basic mechanics (Motion: in one and two dimensions. Conservation Laws: energy and momentum. Newton’s Laws: applied to point masses. Equilibrium of point masses and rigid bodies); Waves and related subjects (simple harmonic motion, travelling waves, simple acoustics); Electricity (electric forces and fields, electrostatic potential, capacitors): Magnetism (magnetic fields, electro-magnetic induction); Circuits (simple D.C. and A.C. circuits).

### 2010-GFund-3a + 3b ≡ APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-4 Chemistry

Stoichiometry; Chemical periodicity; Basic reaction types; Gases; Condensed phases; Chemical equilibrium; Acid-base equilibria; Thermochemistry; Entropy and chemical spontaneity; Electrochemistry; Chemical kinetics; Atomic structure and quantum theory; Chemical bonding; Solids; liquids; intermolecular forces; Organic chemistry; Nuclear chemistry.

### 2010-GFund-4 = NTExam 04-BS-5 Advanced Mathematics

Series Solutions of Differential Equations: Series solutions of ordinary differential equations, boundary value problems and orthogonal functions, Fourier series.

Numerical Methods: Use of computers for numerical solution of engineering problems, including techniques involving library subroutines and spreadsheets. Approximations and errors, interpolation, systems of linear and non-linear algebraic equations, curve fitting, numerical integration and differentiation, and ordinary differential equations.

### 2010-GFund-5 = NTExam 04-BS-1 Mathematics

Calculus, Vector, and Linear Algebra: Applications involving matrix algebra, determinants, eigenvalues; first and second order linear ordinary differential equations, Laplace transforms. Vector algebra; vector functions and operations; orthogonal curvilinear coordinates; applications of partial derivatives, Lagrange multipliers, multiple integrals, line and surface integrals; integral theorems (Gauss, Green, Stokes). Power series.

### 2010-GFund-6 ≡ APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-2 Computing

Candidates must develop familiarity with a high level programming language – one of Fortran, Pascal or C and develop facility in writing computer programs. Organization of stored program computers; principles of structured programming – input/output, assignment, selection and repetition, modular design using functions and procedures/subroutines, data structures including arrays and text files; design and testing of algorithms; introduction to numerical methods – curve fitting, numerical integration, root finding.

### 2010-GFund-7 = NTExam 04-BS-10 Engineering Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic states of simple systems; the laws of thermodynamics; equilibrium, PVT and other thermodynamic diagrams; equation of state; compressibility charts and steam tables; calculation of property changes; enthalpy; applications of thermodynamics, cycles, reversibility; thermodynamics of phase changes, Gibbs phase rule, gas-vapour mixtures.

### 2010-GFund-8 = NTExam 04-BS-13 Biology

Cellular reproduction, growth, and differentiation; metabolism and bioenergetics of living cells; cell structure and function related to the material properties of plant and animal tissues; introductory microbiology — characteristics and classification of microorganisms; interactions of microorganisms with man in the natural world; kinetics and mathematical models of microbial growth; engineered biological systems such as bio- reactors, bio-instrumentation, and waste treatment systems.

### 2010-GFund-10 = NTExam 04-BS-12 Organic Chemistry

Principles of organic chemistry developed around the concepts of structure and functional groups. The main classes of organic compounds. Properties of pure substances. Introduction to molecular structure, bond types, properties, synthesis and reactions, reaction mechanisms, as a means of systematizing organic reactions.

### 2010-GFund-12 ≡ NTExam 04-BS-2 Probability and Statistics

Concepts of probability, events and populations, probability theorems, concept of a random variable, continuous and discrete random variables, probability distributions, distributions of functions of a random variable, sampling and statistical estimation theory, hypothesis testing, simple regression analysis.

### 2010-Glgy-1 =NTExam 04-Geol-A1 Mineralogy and Petrology

Introduction to crystallography and crystal chemistry. Physical and chemical properties of minerals in hand specimens. Identification of minerals and rocks with the petrographic microscope. Field and laboratory classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks. The nature of magmas and processes of magmatic differentiation. Metamorphic facies concepts. Interpretation of mineral assemblages of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the light of the phase rule and phase relations of relevant mineral assemblages. Textural and physical properties of rocks relevant to engineering problems.

### 2010-Glgy-2 = NTExam 4-Geol-A3 Sedimentation and Stratigraphy

Classification of sedimentary rocks, processes of weathering, erosion, sedimentation and diagenesis. Formation of carbonate, clastic and chemical precipitate rocks. Principles of stratigraphic and paleontological correlation; sedimentary facies: geological and practical significance. Distribution of major Precambrian and Phanerozoic systems. Facies associations; modern and ancient sedimentary environments. The engineering properties and behaviour of sedimentary rocks and the use of stratigraphic principles in the solution of engineering problems.

### 2010-Glgy-4 Sedimentary Petrology

Processes of clastic and chemical sedimentation, and diagenesis; sedimentary environments and facies; laboratory techniques in the study of sedimentary rocks.

### 2010-Glgy-6 = NTExam 04-Geol-A4 Structural Geology

Stress and strain. Brittle and ductile rock deformation behaviour. Fabric analysis of deformed rocks. Structural features of stable and mobile parts of the crust. Fold and fault development. Mountain building and orogenies. Theories in geotectonics. Methods of structural analysis. Field mapping and graphical data processing; maps, cross-sections, block diagrams, structure contour maps, stereographic projections, equal area nets, and strain indicators. Kinematic and dynamic interpretation. The application of structural geology to the solution of engineering problems.

### 2010-Glgy-7 Geochemistry

Chemical processes taking place in geologic settings with emphasis on the abundance relationships of the elements in the Earth's crust and the laws governing the migration and distribution of elements of the Earth; the application of geochemistry in the search for mineral deposits.

### 2010-Glgy-8 = NTExam 10-GP-M6 Global Geophysics

Theory and research applications in gravitation, rotation and figure of the Earth, seismology and Earth structure, free oscillations of the Earth, seismic risk, geomagnetism and the core, paleomagnetism and continental drift. Thermal energy at plate boundaries and hot-spots. Mantle convection.

### 2010-Glgy-9 = NTExam 04-Geol-B4 Geomorphology and Pleistocene Geology

Basic geomorphological concepts: formation and composition of landforms, geomorphologic cycles. Weathering and soils. Mass wasting. Fluvial processes and landforms. Coastal processes and landforms. Glacial geomorphology and landforms. Frozen-ground phenomena. Karst geomorphology. Physical geology of Canada. Quaternary geology of selected areas of Canada. Influence of geomorphology on human activity.

### 2010-Glgy-10 Glacial and Quaternary Geology

Elements of glaciology; character and origin of glacial deposits and landforms; geological processes, sediments and landforms in the periglacial environment; frozen and ground phenomena, including permafrost; glacio-isostatic rebound and eustatic changes in sea level; glacial history of Western Canada.

### 2010-Glgy-11 = NTExam 04-Geol-A2 Hydrogeology

Hydrologic cycle: precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, deep and shallow groundwater circulation. Physics of flow through porous media. Hydraulic conductivity and groundwater storage. Occurrence, transmissivity and storage characteristics of surficial and bedrock aquifers. Groundwater exploration methods: geophysics, remote sensing, mapping, borehole investigations. Groundwater flow patterns: recharge, discharge, flow net construction and analysis. Aquifer development and management. Control of pore pressures and groundwater flow in geotechnical engineering.

### 2010-Glgy-13 Petroleum and Natural Gas

Origin and distribution of petroleum. Geochemistry and maturation of organic matter; microbiological and thermal degradation of hydrocarbons, conventional and unconventional source and reservoir rocks; principles of primary and secondary migration; diagenesis of carbonate and clastic reservoir rocks, with reference to seals and traps.

### 2010-Glgy-14 Economic Geology

The economics of exploration and exploitation with respect to metalliferous raw materials. Exploration logistics and planning. Property and prospect evaluation. Drilling and sampling techniques. Reserve and grade estimation.

### 2010-Glgy-15 = NTExam 04-Geol-B6-3 Metallic and Industrial Mineral Deposits

Nature, mode of occurrence and processes of formation of metallic and industrial minerals including minerals deposited from magmas, high-temperature vapours and aqueous solutions; formed by evaporation or precipitation in surface waters; formed by mechanical accumulation or accumulated by residual weathering. Processes of element/mineral migration and concentration. Stratigraphic and structural controls on occurrence. Solution geochemistry and isotopic characteristics of ore bearing fluids and ore deposits. Illustrative case histories for important deposits of sulphides, oxides, native elements, silicates, and ionic salts.

### 2010-Glgy-16 Stratigraphy and Geological Evolution of Western Canada

Historical geology of western Canada from the Precambrian to the Recent. Stratigraphy and evolution of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and the Canadian Cordillera.

### 2010-Glgy-18 = NTExam 04-Geol-A7 Applied Geophysics

Basic principles, interpretation, and limitations of geophysical methods applied to the exploration for coal, oil and natural gas, minerals, groundwater, and for geotechnical studies of the surface and subsurface. Introduction to electrical, electromagnetic, and magnetotelluric surveys; magnetic and gravity surveys; seismic reflection and refraction surveys; radiometric methods. Introduction to geophysical well logging techniques. Case histories of applications to engineering problems.

### 2010-Glgy-20 Advanced Sedimentology

Processes of sedimentation: weathering, transportation, deposition and diagenesis; classification and description of the principal types of detrital and chemical sedimentary rocks.

### 2010-Glgy-23 = NTExam 04-Geol-A5 Rock Mechanics

Engineering properties and classification of intact rocks. Rock mass properties and classification. Laboratory and in-situ testing of rock. In-situ stresses and stress measurement techniques. Stability analysis of rock slopes and excavations. Rock excavation techniques. Design of excavations, slopes, tunnels and shafts. Rock reinforcement and support. Groundwater considerations in rock engineering.

### 2010-Glgy-27 = NTExam 04-Geol-B1 Contaminant Hydrogeology

Groundwater geochemistry, isotopes in groundwater. Movement of dissolved species. Diffusion and dispersion regimes. Classification of contaminants. Organic contaminants, introduction to multiphase flow, LNAPLs and DNAPLs. Assessment, control and remediation of contaminants. Waste management. Deep well disposal.

### 2010-Glgy-28 = NTExam 04-Geol-B6-1 Petroleum Deposits

Physical properties, geochemistry, origin, migration, accumulation, and history of oil and natural gas, and their associated waters. Geological conditions of oil and gas entrapment. Structural and stratigraphic factors controlling the distribution of reservoir rocks, porosity, permeability and fluid saturations. Environmental problems associated with the development of hydrocarbons.

### 2010-Glgy-30 = NTExam 04-Geol-B2 Terrain Analysis

Elements of photogrammetry. Interpretation of aerial photos – recognition elements (tone, pattern, texture, size and shape, occupance). Identification of structures and terrain features. Glacial, fluvial, coastal, and permafrost landforms – identification and engineering characteristics. LANDSAT imagery. Operation, characteristics, and uses of thermal infrared and RADAR remote sensing.

## Courses Without an APEGA Exam

You are responsible for taking an equivalent course for the below

### 2010-GFund-1a Elementary Calculus I

Review of analytical geometry. Differentiation and integration of simple functions. Applications.

### 2010-GFund-1b Elementary Calculus II

Differentiation and integration of trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Indeterminate forms and improper integrals. Applications.

### 2010-GFund-2a General Physics I

Vectors, kinematics in 1D, kinematics in 2D, forces and Newton’s laws of motion, work and kinetic energy, potential energy and conservative forces, linear momentum and collisions, linear and rotational kinematics, rotational dynamics, static equilibrium, gravitational forces, elasticity and simple harmonic motion, oscillations and resonance, waves and sound.

### 2010-GFund-2b General Physics II

Fluids, temperature and heat, kinetic theory of gases, thermodynamics, phase changes, electric charge, electric field, electric potential and potential energy, electric currents, DC circuits, AC circuits, magnetism, Ampere’s law, magnetic flux and Faraday’s law of induction.

### 2010-GFund-3a General Chemistry I

Basic chemical concepts. Stoichiometry. Gas laws. Periodic table and the chemistry of selected elements. Atomic and molecular structure. Chemical bonding. Structures of organic compounds. States of matter and phase changes. Properties of solutions.

### 2010-GFund-3b General Chemistry II

Acid/base concepts. Chemical kinetics and equilibrium. Acid-base and solubility equilibria. Elementary thermodynamics. Oxidation and reduction, electrochemistry.

### 2010-GFund-9 Physical Chemistry

Fundamental concepts of matter in relation to energy. The laws of classical thermodynamics and their application to the properties of gases, liquids, solids and solution. Transport phenomena. The basic laws of chemical kinetics, and their application to reactions in gaseous and liquid phases. Catalysis.

### 2010-GFund-11 Inorganic Chemistry

The structure of many-election atoms, bonding and stereochemistry in inorganic compounds, elementary crystallography, solid-state science and aspects of inorganic solution chemistry. The chemistry of metals and ligand field theory; coordination compounds, metal carbonyls and organo-metallic compounds of the transition elements; descriptive chemistry of the first-row transition elements; industrial extraction of metals; uses of transition metal complexes as catalysts; an introduction to the role of metals in biology.

### 2010-Glgy-3 Igneous Petrology

Mineralogical and chemical classification of igneous rocks. Physics and chemistry of igneous rock formation.

### 2010-Glgy-5 Metamorphic Petrology

Mineralogy and textures of metamorphic rocks. Concepts of metamorphic facies and facies series, and their pressure-temperature-composition interpretation.

### 2010-Glgy-12 Paleontology

Principles of classification; comparison of fossils with modern forms; classification and study of fossil invertebrates.

### 2010-Glgy-17 Geotectonics and Global Geology

Global aspects of plate tectonics and regional geology through time. Application of fundamental stratigraphic and structural principles. Contributions of geophysics, geochemistry, experimental and theoretical petrology to the modern plate tectonic model. Analysis and interpretation of major structural provinces as they relate to the plate boundary interactions.

### 2010-Glgy-19 Optical Mineralogy and Advanced Mineralogy

Optical crystallography with indicatrix theory. Optical techniques in determinative mineralogy with emphasis on transmitted-light microscopy and its application to common rock-forming minerals. Mineral associations, textures and elementary ideas on the origin of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.

### 2010-Glgy-21 Advanced Igneous and/or Metamorphic Petrology

Origin and formation of igneous and/or metamorphic rocks in the light of field, mineralogical, chemical and experimental evidence.

### 2010-Glgy-22 Advanced Geochemistry

Application of physical chemistry to problems in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary geology. Use of thermodynamic calculations to estimate physical and chemical conditions of mineral stability.

### 2010-Glgy-24 Advanced Paleontology

Nomenclature and taxonomy, the species concept, mechanisms of evolution, adaptation, biometrics, paleoecology and preparatory techniques.

### 2010-Glgy-25 Advanced Structural Geology

Structural features of complexly folded and faulted strata. Simple statistical analysis of structural data. Analysis of strains. Computer-based procedures for determining the geometry of faults and folds. Structural analysis in plutonic and metamorphic rocks.

### 2010-Glgy-26 Geostatistics

Analysis of quantitative geological data using digital computers, simple and multivariate statistical models (multiple regression, factor analysis and discriminant functions). Application of these methods to real and hypothetical geological situations.

### 2010-Glgy-29 Advanced Ore Deposits

A detailed study of ore occurrences and processes of formation with emphasis on Canadian deposits.

### 2010-Glgy-31 Precambrian Geology

The Precambrian geologic record with special reference to the stratigraphy, structure, petrology, mineral deposits, geochronology and metamorphism of the Shield areas of North America.