# Geophysics Syllabus, Subject Descriptions & Exam Equivalents

2020 Edition

## Group 1A Compulsory Foundation Science

### 20-Goph-1A.1 Chemistry = (half of) APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-4 Chemistry

First year (or higher) university/CEGEP level Chemistry for Science or Engineering degrees with labs such as:

**1A.1a Chemistry**

Chemistry I: Basic chemical concepts. Stoichiometry. Gas laws. Periodic table and the chemistry of selected elements. Atomic and molecular structure. Chemical bonding. Structures of organic compounds. States of matter and phase changes. Properties of solutions, or,**1A.1b Chemistry**

Chemistry II: Acid/base concepts. Chemical kinetics and equilibrium. Acid-base and solubility equilibria. Elementary thermodynamics. Oxidation and reduction, electrochemistry, or**1A.1c Chemistry**

General Chemistry I: Atomic and molecular structure, stoichiometry in chemical reactions. Chemical bonding. Structures and reactions of organic and inorganic compounds. Materials science, or**1A.1d Chemistry**

General Chemistry II: Gas laws. Kinetics and chemical equilibrium, acids and bases. Oxidation reduction processes and electrochemistry. Elementary thermodynamics.

### 20-Goph-1A.2 Mathematics = (half of) APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-1

*Similar to 2C.1a – credit for both not allowed*

First-year (or higher) university CEGEP-level Mathematics courses for Science or Engineering degrees such as:

**1A.2a Mathematics**

Calculus I: Review of analytical geometry. Differentiation and integration of simple functions. Applications, or**1A.2b Mathematics**

Calculus II: Differentiation and integration of trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Indeterminate forms and improper integrals. Applications, or**1A.2c Mathematics**

Introductory Calculus: Functions and graphs, differentiation and integration of simple functions, analytical geometry.

Remedial high school level algebra, trigonometry, geometry or pre-calculus, are not acceptable.

### 20-Goph-1A.3 Physics = (half of) APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-3 Physics

First-year (or higher) university CEGEP-level Physics courses for Science or Engineering degrees w/labs such as:

**1A.3a Physics (similar to 2C.5d – credit for both not allowed)**

Physics I: Vectors, kinematics in 1D, kinematics in 2D, forces and Newton’s laws of motion, work and kinetic energy, potential energy and conservative forces, linear momentum and collisions, linear and rotational kinematics, rotational dynamics, static equilibrium, gravitational forces, elasticity and simple harmonic motion, oscillations and resonance, waves and sound, or**1A.3b Physics (similar to 2C.5c – credit for both not allowed)**

Physics II: Fluids, temperature and heat, kinetic theory of gases, thermodynamics, phase changes, electric charge, electric field, electric potential and potential energy, electric currents, DC circuits, AC circuits, magnetism, Ampere’s law, magnetic flux and Faraday’s law of induction, or**1A.3c Physics (similar to 2C.5d – credit for both not allowed)**

Introductory Physics I: Fundamental concepts, definitions and physical laws. Vectors, kinematics and statics. Newton's laws, force, work and energy, conservation laws, or**1A.3d Physics (similar to 2C.5d – credit for both not allowed)**

Introductory Physics II: Applications of Newton's laws. Particle dynamics. Rotational Mechanics, Work and energy with variable forces. Fluid mechanics, kinetic and wave theory. First law of thermodynamics.

## Group 1B Additional Foundation Science

### 20-Goph-1B.1 Biology = NTExam 04-BS-13 Biology

**1B.1a Biology**

Course covering one or more of these topics: (a) unity, (b) diversity, (c) continuity and (d) interaction. Unity encompasses the historical events leading to major biological concepts, the chemistry of cells, cell structure and hereditary mechanisms. Diversity deals with the variety of cell types, organ systems and organisms from developmental and evolutionary points of view. Continuity covers the mechanisms of heredity as they relate to evolution. Darwinian evolution and the evolution of man are emphasized. Interaction places the emphasis on the ecosystem and the interaction of organisms with their environment, or**1B.1b Biology**

Higher-level course for degree in science or engineering with a bioscience prerequisite - e.g. vertebrate zoology, invertebrate zoology, microbiology.

### 20-Goph-1B.2 Chemistry (other half of) APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-4 Chemistry

**1B.2a Chemistry**

Chemistry I or II, whichever was not counted in 1A or**1B.2b Chemistry**

Physical Chemistry: (a second-year or higher-level course with first-year chemistry prerequisite). Fundamental concepts of matter in relation to energy. The laws of classical thermodynamics and their application to the properties of gases, liquids, solids and solution. Transport phenomena. The basic laws of chemical kinetics, and their application to reactions in gaseous and liquid phases. Catalysis, or**1B.2c Chemistry = NTExam 04-BS-12 Organic Chemistry**

Organic Chemistry: (a second-year or higher-level course with first-year chemistry prerequisite) A study of compounds of carbon with emphasis on reaction mechanisms to illustrate the basic principles of organic chemistry. Structure and bonding, physical properties, and stereochemistry; addition, elimination, and displacement reactions by function group classification; structure reactivity relationships; aromaticity and aromatic substitution; condensation reactions; spectroscopic methods for structure determination, or**1B.2d Chemistry**

Inorganic Chemistry: (a second-year or higher-level course with first-year chemistry prerequisite) The structure of many-electron atoms, bonding and stereochemistry in inorganic compounds, elementary crystallography, solid-state science and aspects of inorganic solution chemistry. The chemistry of metals and ligand field theory; coordination compounds, metal carbonyls and organometallic compounds of the transition elements; descriptive chemistry of the first-row transition elements; industrial extraction of metals; uses of transition metal complexes as catalysts; an introduction to the role of metals in biology, or**1B.2e Chemistry**

Higher-level chemistry courses for degree in science or engineering that require one or more of the above courses as prerequisites.

### 20-Goph-1B.3 Computer Programming = APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-2 Computing

**1B.3a Computer Programming**

Computer science course that requires students to develop familiarity with a common modern programming language and develop facility in writing computer programs. Organization of stored program computers; principles of structured programming (input/output, assignment, selection and repetition, modular design using functions and procedures/subroutines, data structures including arrays and text files; design and testing of algorithms; introduction to numerical methods) curve fitting, numerical integration, root finding, or**1B.3b Computer Programming**

Computer Programming: Application of programming techniques using a high-level language for the manipulation of large data sets and the solution of problems in mathematics and physics.

Computer science courses that do not involve any programming are not acceptable.

### 20-Goph-1B.4 Mathematics = (other half of) APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-1

**1B.4a Mathematics (similar to 2C.1a – credit for both not allowed)**

Calculus I or II, whichever was not counted in 1A, or**1B.4b Mathematics (similar to 2C.5b – credit for both not allowed)**

Differential equations and transform methods: linear ordinary differential equations; the Laplace transformation; series solutions of differential equations; boundary value problems and orthogonal functions; Fourier series; Fourier integrals, or**1B.4c Mathematics (same as 2C.1l – credit for both not allowed)**

Linear algebra: linear transformations; matrices and matrix operations; determinants; simultaneous linear algebraic equations; eigenvalues and eigenvectors, or**1B.4d Mathematics (same as 2C.1r – credit for both not allowed)**

Vector analysis: vector algebra; vector functions and operators; orthogonal curvilinear multiple coordinates; applications of partial derivatives, multiple integrals, line and surface integrals; integral theorems, or**1B.4e Mathematics**

Higher-level mathematics courses for science or engineering majors that require one or more of the above courses as prerequisites.

### 20-Goph-1B.5 Physics = (other half of) APEGA Exam 04-Prelim-3 Physics

**1B.5a Physics**

Physics I or II, whichever was not counted in 1A, or**1B.5b Physics (similar to 2C.5e – credit for both not allowed)**

Thermodynamics: (a second-year or higher-level course with first-year physics prerequisite). Thermodynamic states of simple systems; the laws of thermodynamics; equilibrium, PVT and other thermodynamic diagrams; energy of state; compressibility charts and steam tables; calculation of property changes; enthalpy; applications of thermodynamics, cycles, reversibility; thermodynamics of phase changes, the Gibbs phase rule; gas-vapor mixtures, psychometrics, or**1B.5c Physics (similar to 2C.5f – credit for both not allowed)**

Optics and waves - a second year or higher-level course with first year physics prerequisite, or**1B.5d Physics**

Planetary physics – a second-year or higher-level course for science or engineering majors with first year physics prerequisite.**1B.5e Physics**

Higher-level physics courses for science or engineering majors that require one or more of the above courses as prerequisites.

General interest courses such as Introduction to Astronomy are not acceptable.

### 20-Goph-1B.6 Statistics = NTExam 04-BS-2 Probability and Statistics

Descriptive statistics; probability distributions, estimation; hypothesis testing; normal, chi- squared, t- and F-distributions; mean and variance tests; regression and correlation; and the use of statistical computer software.

## Group 2A Compulsory Foundation Geoscience

### 20-Goph-2A.1 Field Techniques

**2A.1a Field Techniques (Geophysics) (same as 2C.4a – credit for both not allowed)**

Field surveys and data collection techniques for seismic, gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic, electrical and radiometric methods. Surveys for elevation and position location. Field analysis of geophysical data. Instrumentation. Multiple days of field work outside of the classroom.**2A.1b Field Techniques (Geology & Environmental Geoscience) (same as 2C.4b – credit for both not allowed)**

Field mapping techniques, natural outcrop and terrain analysis and preparation of geological map and cross-section interpretations, field sampling, technical field reports; can include GIS- and digital geological data base development and management. Minimum of 10 days of field work outside of the classroom.

### 20-Goph-2A.2 Mineralogy and Petrology = NTExam 18-Geol-A1 Mineralogy and Petrology

Systematic mineralogy (including identification, classification and description), Physical and chemical properties of minerals. Crystallography and crystal systems (symmetry, crystal structure, crystal systems) Descriptions of rocks in hand samples. Applicable
techniques (such as optical, electrical, magnetic) in mineral and rock identification.

### 20-Goph-2A.3 Sedimentation and Stratigraphy = NTExam 18-Geol-A3 Sedimentation and Stratigraphy

Principles of correlation, facies concept, dynamic processes and their geological record.

### 20-Goph-2A.4 Structural Geology = NTExam 18-Geol-A4 Structural Geology

Description and classification of geological structures, maps, cross-sections, stereographic projections, mechanical principles, stress and strain.

## Group 2B Additional Foundation Geoscience

### 20-Goph-2B.1 Digital Signal Processing (same as 2C.1e – credit for both not allowed)

Introduction to the theory of basic computational techniques of digital processing in geophysics sampling theory; Fourier transforms, convolution, correlation, z-transforms, design and application of digital filters, deconvolution, spectral analysis, 2D signal processing.

### 20-Goph-2B.2 Global Geophysics and Physics of the Earth and one of

**2B.2a Global Geophysics (same as 2C.3c – credit for both not allowed)**

Physics of the Earth, gravity, the geoid, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, heat flow, earthquake seismology, mantle convection.**2B.2b Physics of the Earth (same as 2C.3c – credit for both not allowed)**

Physics of the Earth, gravity, the geoid, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, heat flow, radioactivity and geochronology. Earthquake seismology. Solar system, meteorites.

### 20-Goph-2B.3 Seismology and Seismic Methods and one of

**2B.3a Seismology (same as 2C.7f – credit for both not allowed)**

Theory of body and surface wave propagation, techniques in exploration seismology. Earthquake source mechanisms. Seismic attenuation. Acquisition design of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys; processing and interpretation of 3-D seismic data volumes. Multi-component seismic methods. Introduction to refraction and reflection seismic methods applied to the exploration for resources and their use in engineering studies. Elasticity theory, seismic instrumentation, velocity surveys, near-surface corrections.**2B.3b Seismic Methods**

Basic understanding of seismic wave propagation and seismic velocities of rocks and overburden; principles of refraction and reflection seismology; field methods to acquire and process refraction seismic data; methods to acquire and process reflection seismic data; obtaining velocity and depth information from refraction and reflection surveys; basics of seismic resolution.

### 20-Goph-2B.4 Exploration Geophysics (similar to 2C.9a – credit for both not allowed)

Applied geophysics: reflection and refraction seismology, gravity and magnetics, electrical and electromagnetic methods applied to exploration and environmental problems.

### 20-Goph-2B.5 Radiometrics, Gravity and Magnetics and one of

**2B.5a Radiometrics (same as 2C.7g – credit for both not allowed)**

Common rock-forming radioactive minerals; gamma ray spectra; gamma spectrometers and crystal detectors; ground and airborne radiometric techniques; geological interpretation using radiometrics; borehole radiometric logging.**2B.5b Gravity & Magnetics (same as 2C.7e – credit for both not allowed)**

The nature of the magnetic and gravity fields of the Earth. Density, porosity, magnetic susceptibility. Gravity meters and magnetometers. Potential theory. Theory and applications of gravity and magnetic methods of geophysical exploration. Filtering, upward and downward continuation techniques. Reduction to the pole. Modeling and inversion methods.

### 20-Goph-2B.6 Electrical & Electromagnetic Methods (same as 2C.7d – credit for both not allowed)

Electromagnetic, resistivity, induced polarization, and self-potential methods applied to problems in the search for metallic mineral deposits. Theory and application of Maxwell's equations. Direct and indirect methods of inversion.

### Group 2C Other Geoscience and Science - this list is not exhaustive

### 20-Goph-2C.1 Applied Math or Physics

**2C.1a Calculus (similar to 1A.2a, b, c & 1B.4a – credit for both not allowed)**

Differential and integral calculus to multiple integrals, with applications. Trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions and their inverses. Numerical integration, Taylor Series. Partial differentiation.**2C.1b Computer-Controlled Instrumentation**

Data communications, including signals, modulation and reception. Performance of optimum and sub-optimum systems. Data transmission characteristics, including half/full duplex, asynchronous/ synchronous, point-to-point/multi-drop and character-bit oriented. Error detecting and correcting codes. Character sets and message communications. Local area networks.**2C.1c Condensed Matter Physics**

Crystal structure. Classification of solids and their bonding. Elastic, electric and magnetic properties of solids. Lattice structure, Fermi surfaces.**2C.1d Continuum Mechanics**

Stress and strain in continuous media; elasticity. Mechanics of fluid flow in two and three dimensions. Thermodynamics and mechanics of compressible and viscous flows. Turbulence and convection.**2C.1e Digital Signal Processing (same as 2B.1 – credit for both not allowed)**

Introduction to the theory of basic computational techniques of digital processing in geophysics sampling theory; Fourier transforms, convolution, correlation, z-transforms, design and application of digital filters, deconvolution, spectral analysis, 2D signal processing.**2C.1f Electromagnetic Theory**

Time varying electromagnetic fields up to Maxwell's Equations including topics such as induced fields. Gradient, divergence, curl. Boundary value problems in electrostatics and magnetostatics. Electrical and magnetic properties of materials.**2C.1g Electronics for Scientists**

Basic principles of electronics. Active and passive components, feedback, operational amplifiers, digital electronics, interfacing.**2C.1h Fluid Dynamics**

Flow of viscous and non-viscous fluids, dimensional methods in turbulence.**2C.1i Fluid Flow in Porous Media (same as 2C.11a – credit for both not allowed)**

Porosity, fluid saturation, permeability, interfacial tension, wettability, capillary pressure, effective and relative permeability, steady and unsteady state fluid flow.**2C.1j Geostatistics**

Theory and application of geostatistics. Understanding of available methods and their limitations. Preparation and analysis of data for use in geostatistical models, understand the basics of geostatistical modeling, and ability to build and interpret complex geological models.**2C.1k Integral Transforms**

Fourier and Laplace transforms and their applications in the physical sciences.**2C.1l Linear Algebra (same as 1B.4c – credit for both not allowed)**

Vector and matrix algebra, determinants, linear systems of equations, vector spaces, eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Applications.**2C.1m Mathematical Physics**

Functions of a complex variable; residue calculus; introduction to Cartesian tensor analysis; matrix eigenvalues and eigenvectors; diagonalization of tensors; vector differential operators in curvilinear coordinate systems; introduction to partial differential equations; boundary value problems; derivation of the classical equations; separation of variables.**2C.1n Numerical Methods and Computing**

Basic methods in computational physics including numerical algorithms applied to problems in nonlinear mechanics (chaotic dynamics, iterative maps, etc.), wave motion, electrodynamics, statistical physics, and quantum mechanics, parallel computing methods, writing programs and running simulation algorithms.**2C.1o Optics = 17-Phys-A7**

Review of waves and EM theory, the electromagnetic spectrum, interaction of light with matter and optical materials, geometrical optics and aberrations, polarization, electro-optic modulators, diffraction, diffraction gratings, spot size and resolution of imaging systems, Fourier optics and image processing, laser fundamentals and examples of laser systems.**2C.1p Partial Differential Equations**

Orthogonal sets of functions. Numerical solution of partial differential equations. Classification of second-order linear equations. Hyperbolic and parabolic equations, methods of descent.**2C.1q Signal Analysis**

Advanced methods of data analysis in exploration and production geophysics including advanced filtering, migration, inversion and tomography.**2C.1r Vector and Tensor Analysis (same as 1B.4d – credit for both not allowed)**

Vector algebra; vector functions and operators; orthogonal curvilinear multiple coordinates; applications of partial derivatives, multiple integrals, line and surface integrals; integral theorems.

### 20-Goph-2C.2 Communication

**2C.2a Thesis**

Experimental, theoretical, applied research project in an area of geoscience, carried out independently and under faculty supervision.**2C.2b Technical Writing**

Principles of effective written communication in geoscience in technical, professional and business contexts.

### 20-Goph-2C.3 Earth & Planetary Geoscience

**2C.3a Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism**

Fundamental principles of rock magnetism, paleomagnetism, and geomagnetism; origin and behaviour of the geomagnetic field; physical and chemical basis of paleomagnetism; physics of magnetism as it applies to rocks and minerals; origin of remnant magnetization; mineralogy of magnetic minerals; paleomagnetic measurement techniques.**2C.3b Global Tectonics**

Global aspects of plate tectonics, basin development and regional geology through time. Contributions of geophysics, sedimentary basin analysis, geochemistry and petrology to the modern plate tectonic model. Analysis and interpretation of major structural provinces as they relate to the plate boundary interactions.**2C.3c Global Geophysics (same as 2B.2a,b – credit for both not allowed)**

Physics of the Earth, gravity, the geoid, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, heat flow, earthquake seismology, mantle convection.

### 20-Goph-2C.4 Field Techniques

**2C.4a Field Techniques (Geophysics) (same as 2A.1a – credit for both not allowed)**

Field surveys and data collection techniques for seismic, gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic, electrical and radiometric methods. Surveys for elevation and position location. Field analysis of geophysical data. Instrumentation. Multiple days of field work outside of the classroom.**2C.4b Field Techniques (Geology & Environmental Geoscience) (same as 2A.1b – credit for both not allowed)**

Field mapping techniques, natural outcrop and terrain analysis and preparation of geological map and cross-section interpretations, field sampling, technical field reports; can include GIS- and digital geological data base development and management. Minimum of 10 days of field work outside of the classroom.

### 20-Goph-2C.5 Fundamental Math or Physics

**2C.5a Complex Analysis**

Mapping by elementary functions; conformal mapping; applications of conformal mapping; Schwartz-Christoffel transformation; Poisson integral formula; poles and zeros; Laplace transforms and stability of systems; analytic continuation.**2C.5b Differential Equations (similar to 1B.4b – credit for both not allowed)**

First- and second-order linear differential equations with applications. Series solutions about regular points and singular points.**2C.5c Electricity & Magnetism (similar to 1A.3b – credit for both not allowed)**

Electrostatics, DC circuits, electric field, electric potential, Gauss's law, electromagnetic induction, capacitance. AC circuits. Electrical and magnetic properties of materials.**2C.5d Mechanics (similar to 1A.3a, c, d – credit for both not allowed)**

Introductory Newtonian particle mechanics and rigid bodies in rotational equilibrium: kinematics, Newton's laws, conservation of momentum and mechanical energy.**2C.5e Thermodynamics (similar to 1B.5b – credit for both not allowed)**

Thermodynamic states of simple systems; the fundamental relation of thermodynamics; the first and second laws of thermodynamics; equilibrium, PVT and other thermodynamic diagrams; energy of state; compressibility charts and steam tables; calculation of property changes; enthalpy; Helmholtz and Gibbs function; the Maxwell equations; applications of thermodynamics, cycles, reversibility; thermodynamics of phase changes, the Clapeyron equation, Gibb’s phase rule, gas-vapor mixtures, psychometrics.**2C.5f Vibrations, Waves & Optics (similar to 1B.5c – credit for both not allowed)**

Harmonic damped and forced oscillators. Geometrical optics, interference, waves, diffractions. Wave-equation.

### 20-Goph-2C.6 Geology

**2C.6a Geochemistry = Glgy-G7**

Chemistry of Earth and Earth environments, geological processes, geological cycles and reservoirs, stability diagrams, balancing chemical reactions.**2C.6b Igneous Petrology**

Classification, mineralogy and textures, igneous processes origin, evolution, description in hand sample and thin section.**2C.6c Metamorphic Petrology**

Classification, mineralogy and textures, metamorphic processes, facies, P-T-composition interpretation, description in hand sample and thin section.**2C.6d Sedimentary Petrology**

Origin of sedimentary rocks, including the physics and chemistry of their deposition, diagenesis and weathering processes. Laboratory includes hand specimen and microscopic petrography, classification, and grain size and shape analysis.**2C.6e Structural Geology (Advanced)**

Structural features of complexly folded and faulted strata. Simple statistical analysis of structural data. Analysis of strains. Computer-based procedures for determining the geometry of faults and folds. Structural analysis in plutonic and metamorphic rocks.**2C.6f Tectonics**

Analysis and interpretation of major structural provinces as they relate to the plate boundary interactions.

### 20-Goph-2C.7 Geophysical Methods & Interpretation

**2C.7a Analytical Methods (Geophysics)**

Infinite series of constants; sequences; series of functions; uniform convergence; power series; Taylor series; Weierstrass Approximation; iterative methods for nonlinear equations in one variable; interpolation and polynomial approximation; discrete least-squares approximation; numerical differentiation and integration.**2C.7b Analytical Methods (Geoscience)**

Instruments and methods used to analyze the chemistry of samples, such as ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), IC (ion chromatography), XRF (x-ray fluorescence), XRD (x-ray diffraction), AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometry). Understanding of the theory of the instruments as well as practical aspects of sample preparation and improving data quality.**2C.7c Marine Geophysics**

The application of the various geophysical techniques to the study of the sea floor and the examination of principal results obtained. The processes involved in the creation, evolution and destruction of ocean basins and the implications of the experimental observations.**2C.7d Electrical and Electromagnetic Methods (same as 2B.6 – credit for both not allowed)**

Electromagnetic, resistivity, induced polarization, and self-potential methods applied to problems in the search for metallic mineral deposits. Theory and application of Maxwell's equations. Direct and indirect methods of inversion.**2C.7e Gravity & Magnetics (same as 2B.5b – credit for both not allowed)**

The nature of the magnetic and gravity fields of the Earth. Density, porosity, magnetic susceptibility. Gravity meters and magnetometers. Potential theory. Theory and applications of gravity and magnetic methods of geophysical exploration. Filtering, upward and downward continuation techniques. Reduction to the pole. Modeling and inversion methods.**2C.7f Seismology (same as 2B.3a – credit for both not allowed)**

Theory of body and surface wave propagation, techniques in exploration seismology. Earthquake source mechanisms. Seismic attenuation. Acquisition design of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys; processing and interpretation of 3-D seismic data volumes. Multi-component seismic methods. Introduction to refraction and reflection seismic methods applied to the exploration for resources and their use in engineering studies. Elasticity theory, seismic instrumentation, velocity surveys, near-surface corrections.**2C.7g Radiometrics (same as 2B.5a – credit for both not allowed)**

Common rock-forming radioactive minerals; gamma ray spectra; gamma spectrometers and crystal detectors; ground and airborne radiometric techniques; geological interpretation using radiometrics; borehole radiometric logging.**2C.7h Rock Properties or Rock Physics = 18-Geol-A5 Rock Mechanics**

Physical properties of minerals and rocks. Measurement methods and their relationship to geophysical surveys and interpretation.**2C.7i Seismic Interpretation**

Principles of seismic stratigraphy, and seismic sequence analysis, and structural interpretation of reflection seismic data, depth conversion methods.**2C.7j Geodesy and Geomatics**

Advanced principles of geodesy and geomatic methods, including projections, co-ordinate systems, reference states.

### 20-Goph-2C.8 Modern Physics

**2C.8a Elements of Modern Physics**

Experimental evidence leading to the development of quantum mechanics including the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, X-ray production and electron diffraction; Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Schrodinger theory of quantum mechanics; the simple harmonic oscillator; atomic physics; hydrogen atom; periodic table.**2C.8b Quantum Mechanics**

Origins of quantum mechanics; wave functions; Schrodinger equation and its application to one dimensional systems, postulates and physical interpretation of quantum mechanics; orbital angular momentum, central potentials and three-dimensional systems.**2C.8c Statistical Physics = 17-Phys-A2 Statistical Physics**

Quantum states, probability distributions, temperature and entropy; canonical ensemble and the partition function; ideal gases, paramagnets; blackbody radiation. Debye model for phonons; quantum statistics; Fermi-Dirac distribution and electrons in metals; Bose-Einstein distribution.

### 20-Goph-2C.9 Near-Surface Geoscience

**2C.9a Environmental Geophysics (similar to 2B.4 – credit for both not allowed)**

Methods for determining the composition and structure of shallow subsurface materials, including refraction seismic, high resolution reflection seismic, direct current resistivity, induced polarization (IP), low induction number electromagnetic profiling and depth sounding, ground penetrating radar, magnetics and microgravity.**2C.9b Geomorphology = 18-Geol-B4 Geomorphology and Pleistocene Geology**

Study of surficial processes and principles that operate at or near the surface of Earth, including the formation and evolution of landforms and landscapes over time by a combination of physical, chemical and biological processes. Areas of study in geomorphology include but are not limited to aeolian, coastal, fluvial, glacial, lacustrine, marine, mass wasting, pedology**2C.9c Geomorphology (Advanced)**

Examination of one or several geomorphic environments, including applied topics. Recognition and interpretation of sediments and landforms and the processes involved in their formation. In the case of applied geomorphology, to analyze problems caused by geomorphic processes pertinent to engineering, resource development or environmental hazards.**2C.9d Geographic Information Systems**

Fundamentals, concepts and components of geographic information systems (GIS) as applied to geoscience. Ability to acquire, manipulate and analyze digital terrain data for geological, engineering and/or environmental applications.**2C.9e Glacial Geology (credit allowed for only one of 2C.9e, 2C.9f)**

Processes and products of glaciation (the growth, movement, and decay of glacial ice masses) and interpretation of glacigenic sediments, landforms and landscapes including the stratigraphic, geomorphic and historical record of glaciation and applications to engineering, prospecting or climate change.**2C.9f Quaternary Geology (credit allowed for only one of 2C.9e, 2C.9f)**

Glacial and non-glacial depositional environments, Quaternary stratigraphy, history and the processes responsible for change; dating methods. Interpretation of sediments, facies associations and land forms in a chronological context.**2C.9g Remote Sensing**

Imaging of the Earth by EM waves, with data analysis. Recognition of surficial materials relevant to mapping or geological/engineering applications.

### 20-Goph-2C.10 Regional Geology

**2C.10a Geology of Canada**

Description and understanding of the processes involved in the development and evolution of the Precambrian and Phanerozoic rocks of Canada.**2C.10b Geology of North America**

The application of plate tectonic theory to the Precambrian and Phanerozoic evolution of the North American continent.

### 20-Goph-2C.11 Resource Geoscience

**2C.11a Fluid Flow in Porous Media (same as 2C.1i – credit for both not allowed)**

Porosity, fluid saturation, permeability, interfacial tension, wettability, capillary pressure, effective and relative permeability, steady and unsteady state fluid flow.**2C.11b Hydrogeology (credit allowed for only one of 2C.11b, c) = 18-Geol A2 Hydrogeology**

Theory of groundwater flow, groundwater resources, role of groundwater in geologic processes, controls on groundwater chemistry.**2C.11c Hydrology (credit allowed for only one of 2C.11b, c)**

Description and analysis of surface waters, soil water and shallow groundwater at various scales, techniques of measurement and data analysis. Surface waters include stream flow, processes in lakes, marine basins and along coastlines**2C.11d Mineral Deposits Geology = 18-Geol-B6-3 Metallic and Industrial Mineral Deposits**

Ore formation and mechanisms of concentration. Stratigraphic and structural control of mineral deposits and their metallogeny. The application of chemical principles to the understanding of mineral deposits.**2C.11e Petroleum Geology = 17-Pet-B4 Petroleum Geology**

Origin and distribution of petroleum. Geochemistry and maturation of organic matter; microbiological and thermal degradation of hydrocarbons, conventional and unconventional source and reservoir rocks; principles of primary and secondary migration; diagenesis of carbonate and clastic reservoir rocks, with reference to seals and traps.**2C.11f Reservoir Engineering = 17-Pet-A3 Fundamental Reservoir Engineering**

Rock properties, rock-fluid interactions, flow through porous media, and material balance.**2C.11g Well-Log Analysis**

Petrophysics and modern well-logging methods. Theory and applications of measurements of physical properties of the formation near the well bore, types of well logging devices, interpretation and use of information in petroleum and natural gas engineering.